>> Friday, August 20, 2010

The NGOs play important role in Agroforestry development. The approaches and roles of different NGOs are mentioned in belo

1. Targeting the Farmer
First off all, the NGOs worked invite farmers including men and women in a meeting. After gathering the farmer, they give information about agroforestry and tree plantation to the farmers. The workers also take information of lands, economic conditions and family status. Then, they select the poor and marginal farmers who show interest to plant the trees in the Agroforestry system. They build up the tree farmers with the selected farmers.
2. Motivation the Farmer
They gathered the poor farmers and women and give idea about Agroforestry. They also give consultation about the benefits of Agroforestry and important role to environment. The NGO workers informed the poor farmers about the more income through Agroforestry than the monoculture. They also understand the farmers the importance of trees for our life. They promise to the farmer that if they do Agroforestry in their land, the concerned NGO will provide all kind of required assistance such as technical, financial, instrumental and others. In these ways, the NGO motivate the farmer to do Agroforestry.

3. Training
After motivation the farmer, the invested farmers are given training about Agroforestry and nursery development. They trained the farmers how to established nursery, how to plant trees in cropland, how to maintain trees and how to applied fertilizers. They also trained about silvicultural management and others. They trained the farmers about cutting, budding, grafting and collecting scion materials. The farers also get training about management and control strategy of pest and diseases in the field. The NGO workers trained the technique of plus tree selecting and mother tree orchard to produce quality-planting materials.

4. Nursery Establishment
The NGO undertake the nursery program to ensure supply of seedlings locally as most of the nurseries are located in the urban area. NGOs nursery program is carried out though homestead and large-scale nurseries. Homestead nurseries are established on about 10 – 15 decimals of homestead land. Each nursery producing 1000 seedlings annually of different fruit and fuel trees (Huq and Alim, 1995 ). Most of the NGOs have self-nursery. The NGOs produce tree, fruit and fuel species in their nursery. For establishing nursery the NGOs supply:

 High qualities seed among their numbers who are interested to established nursery.
 Loan among their beneficiaries about nursery technique and nursery diseases.
 BRAC helps to sell seedling outside commercially.
 Different types of instruments those are required for nursery establishment.

5. Selection the Land
The NGO workers select the land where Agroforestry have to do. Then the selected farmers plant trees in those lands in combination with agricultural crops. They selected the agricultural land, marginal land and homestead land for Agroforestry.

6. Species Selection
Agroforestry is a sustainable land management system with agricultural crops and forest crops. Foe established this program the NGOs select the following species-
 Long term species – Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Mehagony (Swietenia Macroplylla), Ipil- ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), Sisso (Dalbergia sissoo), Am (Mangifera indica), Lichi ( Lichi chinensis).
 Mid term species – Lemon ( Catrus spp), Guava ( Psidium guajava), Papaya ( Cariaca papaya).
 Short term species – Vegetable like cowpea ( Vigna Ungiaculata), Eggplant ( Solanum Melongata ), cauliflower , tomato, zinger etc.

7. Management System
The regional manager supervises all these Agroforestry activities and both he and sector specialist report to the programme coordinator of the rural development programme. Thus NGOs like VFFP, BRAC, Proshika, Jagorania Chakra, CARE, SDC, DANIDA, MCC, WINROCK, WAVE, RDRS, Caritas and other many NGOs. Play an important role in Agroforestry development in Bangladesh. The farmer information their problems about trees and crops during supervising the Agroforestry fields to the regional manager and other NGO workers. Then the manager calls a regional coordination meeting and invites those farmers to solve the problems. In the meeting, the NGOs workers hear the farmer’s problems, their problems and need that can not be solved in regional meeting are discussed in central meeting and solve through that meeting.

8. Providing Technical Support
NGOs provide technical training and support to the farmers. They trained the farmer about nursery establishment, nursery management, nursery pest and diseases management and control, management of seedlings, planting technique of seedling, management of trees in agricultural field, silvicultural systems, weeding systems, crops planting and managing systems, control of pests of trees and crop[s, fertilizer application, pruning of branches and collection of fruits and harvesting of trees. They also provide modern instruments and pesticides to the farmers without any cost.

The NGOs also offer training to the farmers about cutting, grafting, budding and making scion materials. Sometimes, the NGOs provide vehicles to transport their planting materials and Agroforestry products.

9. Providing Financial Support
Some NGOs provide financial support. The system of providing financial support is not same for all NGOs. They provide loan to farmers for Agroforestry activities. In the beginning, VFFP offered 100% money required for established nursery, tree plantation, maintenance and other costs for agriforestry. Now, they provide little money to the farmers.
BRAC provides money to the farmers money to the farmers about 50% of the required money. They also provide seed for nursery establishment, seedling for planting. Other NGOs like WINROCK, WAVE, RDRS, Caritas, Proshika, Jagorania Chakra, etc. also they provide monetary support, seeds and seedlings to the farmers.
10. Farmers of NMS ( Nursery malik samity)
NMS is a business association for nursery owners. Technican assistance is provided through the nursery malik samity. Nursery malik samity is been on the thana level. Nursery malik samity includes 20-30 nursery maliks. If the member of NMS is greater than 30, then in one thana more one NMS can be formed. If the number of NMS in one thana is less than 20, one NMS can cover more than one thana. A single NGO are responsible for one NMS. Technical training are imparted to a few nursery Maliks, selected by the NMS and trained NMS will pass on their training to other member of samity.

11. Tree Farmers Program
The NGOs organize a tree farmer in every month. In this program, all farmers are invited for the following reason-
 TO know the needs of all members
 TO spread out of the existing project strength and strategy to the farmers.
 TO reach to the whole community of a village through tree farmers group.
 TO know the problems of all members.
 To increase the farmers capacity.
 To improve the Agroforestry practices by the tree farmers group and their neighbors.

12. Farmer’s Capacities Development
Farmer’s capacities are developed by NGOs though holding meeting, showing VDO and spreading different types of leaflets and colorful posters organizing rallies. VFFP and Jagorania Chakra range a series of five meeting in 2003 to develop the following capacities of the farmers-
 Pest and diseases management of mango, jackfruit, coconut, guava, bamboo, betel nut, lemon and litchu in Agroforestry.

 Planting and managing techniques of crops, fruit trees and timber trees.
 Grafting, budding and cutting techniques of fruit trees.
 Importance of Agroforestry.
 Vegetable production techniques in the homestead.

All NGOs took steps like the above to develop the technical, socio-organizational and managerial capacities of their farmers.

13. Exchange visit
The NGO worker informed and trained the farmers about their annual plan operation and provide financial, technical and administrative support. Then , the farmers implement the program in their field. During implementing the program the NGO workers and administrative officers go to the field to survey and evaluate the program. In this time, they exchange their opinions about their performance with the farmers. They are also informed about the farmer’s problems and needs through the exchange visit. The NGO workers also trained the farmers about different techniques like homestead planning, cutting, budding, grafting etc.


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