Anthracnose of SOYABEAN-Part-2

>> Sunday, August 22, 2010

Disease Cycle

 In every infectious disease a series of more or less distinct events occurs in succession and leads to the development and perpetuation of the disease; this chain of events is called disease cycle. As the infectious disease, anthracnose has a cycle are as follows: 

Inoculation:

 This pathogens, usually is a seed borne fungus, and also in crop residues.
 Primary inoculation occurs through conidia or mycelium that was dormant in seed or plant debris, mycelium may be active in plant debris.
 Air-borne conidia also cause secondary inoculation which is produced after primary infection.
 Pathogens from crop residue may causes disease by means of any contact ness of the host.
Penetration:

Conidia produce germ tube with only in the presence of water and form an appresorium and penetrate the host tissue directly.
 In the beginning, the Sharpe hyphae grow rapidly, intercellular as well as intra-cellular, but cause little or no visible discoloration or other symptom.

Establishment of infection:

Incase of seed-borne, the fungus causes primary infection on the seedlings automatically because it was already present in the seed through over wintering.
 But secondary infection may occur in any later stage, of course at susceptible stage of the host, by conidia which are produced in accervuli transmitted through air or insects.
 Develops a relation with host tissue and recurs nutrients from the tissue and also damages or discolor the host tissue.

Invasion:

 Invasion of Colletotrichum may occur through intercellular, intracellular and sub-epidermal cell etc.
 May invade a small number of seeds without causing any apparent injury to them.

Reproduction:

Mycelium produces the asexual fruiting body that is known as acervuli in the favorable condition.
 The fungus produces colorless, one-celled, ovoid, cylindrical sometimes curved or dumbbell-shaped conidia in acervuli.
 Masses of conidia appear pink or salmon colored.
 The acervuli are sub epidermal and break out through the surface of the tissue i.e. conidia push up and rupture the cuticle.


Dissemination:

 The conidia disseminates passively.
 The conidia are released and spread only when the acervuli are wet and are generally contact with insects, other animals, tools and so on.
 Spores are splashed by irrigation or rain water to near by plants.
Over wintering:

 This fungus over winters in infested seed as well as in infected crop residues.
 They are in the soil as saprophyte.
 They can over winters as mycelium or as conidial form on the seed.


Factor affecting disease development:

 Development of anthracnose is favored during periods of moderate temperatures.
 High humidity or wet weather



Control:

• To destroy the crop refuse completely.
• Seed treatment with organo-mercurials helps to eradicate the external seed-borne inoculation.
• Fungicidal sprays (benomyl, captan, iprodione, bordeaux mixture)
• at 15 days intervals helps to reduce the disease incidence.
Difolatan (0.3%) and Dithane M-45 (0.2%) are effective when sprayed at fortnightly interval.  
• To collect seeds from healthy disease free area.
• To rotate crops and till areas where anthracnose occurred to bury inoculum and prevent a build-up of the pathogen.

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Anthracnose disease of soybeans-1

Anthracnose is a major yield reducing fungal disease of soybeans. It is caused by Colletotrichum dematium pv truncate and several related species i.e. Gloeosporium sp. The perfect stage of the fungus is Glomerella sp. The disease is generally late season (i.e. pod set and harvest) disease but it can occur earlier. All growth stages may be affected, including post harvest stages. As it is seed borne fungi, reduces seed quality (as measured by germinability). Fungi can reduce soybean quality also.

Systematic position of the causal organism: 

Kingdom: Fungi
  Division: Eumycota
  Sub-Div: Deuteromycotina
  Class: Coelomycetes
  Order: Melanconiales
  Family: Melanconiaceae
  Genus: Colletotrichum
  Species: C. dematium pv truncatum

Symptoms:

 Leaves, petioles, stems, pods and pedicels are susceptible to this disease. 
 Symptoms of anthracnose can develop in soybeans at any stage of crop development. Most commonly, however, symptoms appear in the early reproductive stages on stems, pods and leaf petioles as irregularly-shaped brown blotches. Blotches are embedded with black fungal bodies which have small, but visible, spines. These structures can be seen with the unaided eye but may be visible more easily with a hand lens.
 Foliage develops brown lesions on the veins and cankers on the leaf petioles.
 Spots or lesions may coalesce and enlarges the lesion or spots.
 Leaves may roll and defoliate prematurely and plants may be stunted. 
 Infected pods may be shriveled and contain no seed; or more two-seeded pods, with shriveled moldy seed, may be evident. 
 Pods can be diseased and the seed may be infected, but symptoms are not always evident in the seed.
 When infected seeds are planted, many of germinating seedlings are killed before emergence. 

(Continue............ )

Written By:-

Bismark Bangali,        

Training And Media Communication Officer,

SAFE, Khulna- Bangladesh.

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Ecological Concept of Pest Management – II

>> Saturday, August 21, 2010

Factors Determining the Number of Arthropod Species in a Community:

Number of arthropod species in a community is correlated with following major factors:

1. Plant species diversity
2. Plant structural diversity
3. Distance of community from source of colonists
4. Length of contemporary time available for colonization
5. Evolutionary time available for coevolution between herbivores and their host plants. 


Ecological/Community Succession:

Ecological succession, a fundamental concept in ecology, refers to more-or-less predictable and orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological community. Succession may be initiated either by formation of new, unoccupied habitat (e.g., a lava flow or a severe landslide) or by some form of disturbance (e.g. fire, severe windthrow, logging) of an existing community. The former case is often referred to as primary succession, the latter as secondary succession.
Establishment of K-selected species in Community:

 As the age of the community increases, condition tend to change from severe to equable, and favors for the establishment of the K- selected species rather than r-selected species.

Driving force for community succession:

The main driving forces/ factor for the community succession are the following:

Force/Factor 1. Plant species that colonizes an area actually changes that area and thus make it more suitable for other colonists;

Force/ Factor 2. Different species of colonists arrive at different times.


Influence of Plant on the Development of Succeeding Community


The first factor can again be broken into four main influences that plants have on the development of the succeeding community.


1. They create more shade and thus ameliorate the microclimate, making it possible for the shade tolerant species to colonize.
2. They contribute organic matter, which changes soil texture and nutrient status;
3. They produce chemicals ( secondary metabolic compounds) that may be toxic to other members of their own species or to other plant species; and
4. They attract animals, including insects that change factors in the environment by burrowing in soil, leaving excrement, selectively eating plants, dispersing seeds, pollinating flowers and attracting their own predators and parasites.

The second factor: Different species of colonies arrive at different times:

 Plant species with tiny, wind-dispersed seed arrive very early
 Eventually enough large seeds arrive to outcompete the resident species and succession results
 Similar trends may be seen in the insect species that colonize an area, although insect size does not correlate so well with competitive ability.


Synoptic model:

The concepts of ecological succession, habitat stability, r- and k- selected and population dynamics have been nicely integrated into synoptic model by Southward (1975) and Southwood and Comins (1976).


As a very general conclusion of this chapter, agricultural ecosystem can be viewed in terms of two central concepts of ecology- island biogeographical theory and the succession of community.

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Taxonomy of the genus Oryza (Poaceae): historical perspective and current status

Introduction
T
he genus Oryza L. is classified under the tribe Oryzeae, subfamily Oryzoideae, of the grass family Poaceae
(Gramineae). This genus has two cultivated species (O. sativa L. and O. glaberrima Steud.) and more than 20
wild species distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. The Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa) is an
economically important crop that is the staple food for more than one-half of the world’s population. All the wild
relative species in the genus Oryza, together with weedy rice and different rice varieties, serve as an extremely
valuable genepool that can be used to broaden the genetic background of cultivated rice in breeding programs
(Brar and Khush 1997, Bellon et al 1998). Fuller exploitation of the wild rice genepool will provide many more
opportunities to significantly enhance rice productivity. More effective conservation management and more efficient
use of the valuable genetic diversity in the rice genepool, however, largely rely on the development of an appropriate
taxonomic and biosystematic framework for the genus Oryza.
Species in Oryza have already attracted enormous attention from scientists worldwide because of their
agronomic importance. Many studies on taxonomy, phylogeny, and genetic relationships of the Oryza species
have been conducted (Roschevicz 1931, Sampath 1962, Tateoka 1963, Sharma and Shastry 1965, 1972, Chang
1985, Vaughan 1989, 1994, Morishima et al 1992, Wang et al 1992, Lu et al 1998). Diversity in Oryza is tremendous,
Dr Baorong Lu, germplasm specialist of IRRI’s Genetic Resources
Center (GRC), collects wild rice Oryza rufipogon in Eastern Nepal.
MINI REVIEWPage 2

5
IRRN 24.3
which is reflected in the different genomes and genomic
combinations in the genus, and in the significant morphological
variation within and between species. On the other hand, the
great morphological variation in this genus also causes certain
taxonomic difficulties, leading to ambiguous delimitation between
some Oryza taxa. In addition, different classification systems or
taxonomic treatments have been proposed by authors who had
access to herbarium specimens representing only certain
geographic regions. This makes the taxonomy of Oryza species
even more complicated. No single system has been generally
accepted by scientists from different parts of the world to date.
Historical perspective and species enumeration
The genus Oryza was first described by Linnaeus (1753), who
recognized only one species, O. sativa, based on the samples of
cultivated rice from Ethiopia. During the past two centuries, more
than 100 species were published in Oryza by different authors
(for review, see Vaughan 1989), which gives this genus great
taxonomic complexity. Baillion (1894) was the first who tried to
make a more systematic classification of the genus. He recognized
five Oryza species and divided them into four sections, i.e., Sect.
Euoryza (O. sativa), Sect. Padia (O. meyeriana), Sect.
Potamophila (O. parviflora), and Sect. Maltebrunia (O.
leersioides and O. prehensilis). The latter two sections have been
treated as independent genera in the current taxonomy of the
tribe Oryzeae (Vaughan 1989). Roschevicz (1931) made a
comprehensive review and detailed studies on Oryza species,
which were considered as the greatest contribution to Oryza
taxonomic research at that time. He established a classification
system with 20 species in four sections, i.e., Sect. Sativa (with 12
species), Sect. Granulata (2 species), Sect. Coarctata (5 species),
and Sect. Rhynchoryza (1 species). This system served as a
foundation for Oryza taxonomic studies thereafter, although
some species have been transferred to other genera of the
Oryzeae. Since then, the genus has been extensively reviewed
and revised by many taxonomists. Table 1 summarizes the number
of species in the major taxonomic treatments of Oryza since its
establishment by Linnaeus in 1753. The number of species varied
from 5 to 27 in different systems established at different times.
The delimitation of the genus Oryza also varied through
time in different systems. The earlier taxonomists, such as Baillion
(1894), Roschevicz (1931), Chevalier (1932), Chatterjee (1948),
Sampath (1962), Tateoka (1963), Sharma and Shastry (1965,
1972), and Oka (1988), offered a wider generic delimitation.
However, I recognize the same generic delimitation of Chang
(1985) and Vaughan (1989), in which the genus Oryza is
characterized by having a spikelet containing a single terminal
fertile floret (composed of a lemma, palea, six stamens, and a
bifid feathery stigma) and two sterile lemmas (sometimes referred
to as glumes) connected to the base of the floret through a rachilla.
O. coarctata is now in Porteresia; O. angustifolia, O. perrieri,
and O. tisseranti are in Leersia, and O. sabulata is in
Rhynchoryza.
The subdivisional treatment
The subdivision of Oryza into four sections by Roschevicz (1931)
had a fundamental influence on subsequent rice taxonomists,
although the sectional epithets have been modified because of
the legitimacy of botanic nomenclature. Sect. Sativa and Sect.
Granulata recognized by Roschevicz (1931) correspond to Sect.
Euoryza and Sect. Padia published by Baillion (1894). According
to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN),
however, the type section should be named Oryza, which should
replace both Sect. Euoryza and Sect. Sativa. Sect. Padia is a valid
epithet because it was legally published by Baillion (1894) earlier
Table 1. Species of Oryza as recognized by different taxonomists. The
“+” indicates species recognized by the author(s). The italic epithets
indicate commonly accepted taxa in modern literature; the bold italic
epithets indicate taxa that are no longer included in the genus Oryza.
Nonitalic epithets indicate names that are not valid anymore in the
genus Oryza.
O. alta
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. australiensis
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. barthii
+
d
+
d
+
d
+
d
+
d
+
+
+
+
O. brachyantha
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. cubensis
+
O. eichingeri
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. glaberrima
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. glumaepatula
+
+
i
+
O. grandiglumis
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. granulata
+
b
+
b
+
+
+
h
+
b
+
+
O. latifolia
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. longiglumis
+
+
+
+
+
O. longistaminata
+
e
+
e
+
e
+
e
+
+
+
+
O. malampuzhaensis
+
+
+
+
O. meridionalis
+
+
+
O. meyeriana
+
+
+
+
+
+
g
+
+
+
+
O. mezii
+
O. minuta
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. nivara
+
+
+
+
O. officinalis
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. perennis
+
+
O. punctata
+
c
+
c
+
c
+
+
f
+
c
+
+
+
+
O. rhizomatis
+
O. ridleyi
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. rufipogon
+
+
+
+
+
i
+
O. sativa
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. schlechteri
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. stapfii
+
+
+
O. angustifolia
+
+
O. coarctata
+
+
+
+
+
+
O. perrieri
+
+
+
+
+
O. subulata
+
+
+
+
+
O. tisseranti
+
+
+
+
+
a
Only includes species currently recognized in Oryza. 
b
O. abromeitiana was recognized. 
c
O.
schweinfurthiana was recognized. 
d
Named as O. breviligulata by the author. 
e
Named as O.
barthii by the author. 
f
O. ubanghensis was recognized. 
g
Including subsp. granulata and subsp.
abromeitiana. 
h
O. indandamanica was recognized. 

Including O. perennis.
Linnaeus (1753)
Baillion (1894)
a
Prodoehl (1922)
Rosche
vicz (1931)
Che
valier (1932)
Chatterjee (1948)
Sampath (1962)
Tateoka (1963)
Ghose et al (1965)
Sharma & Shastr
y (1972)
Chang (1985)
Vaughan (1989)Page 3

6
December 1999
than Sect. Meyeriana named by Roschevicz (1931). Sect.
Coarctatae and Sect. Rhynchoryza should no longer be included
in Oryza, following the present generic delimitation by Chang
(1985) and Vaughan (1989). Table 2 summarizes the subdivisional
treatments of Oryza by different taxonomists at different times.
Among these treatments, the ones by Sharma and Shastry
(1965, 1972) and Vaughan (1989) have been more extensively
accepted in different parts of the world. The subdivisional
treatments by Sharma and Shastry (1965, 1972) seemed to be
influenced by that of Roschevicz (1931), but with a significant
revision in terms of the subdivisional ranks and their species
inclusion. In the systems of Sharma and Shastry (1965, 1972), 26
species were recognized and included in eight (or nine) series of
three sections. Species included in Sect. Oryza and Sect. Padia
by Sharma and Shastry (1965) all conform to the present generic
delimitation of Oryza, but most of the species (including the type
species O. angustifolia) recognized by Sharma and Shastry (1965)
in Sect. Angustifolia have no longer been included in Oryza. Only
O. brachyantha remains in the genus. Therefore, the epithet
Angustifolia should not be valid as a section in Oryza. Considering
that O. brachyantha is morphologically and genetically very
distinct from all other Oryza species, this species should be
treated as a separate section.
Vaughan’s classification of four complexes (1989) was
obviously influenced by that of Tateoka (1962a). Based on an
extensive morphological study of all Oryza species from different
sources, Tateoka (1962a,b, 1963) made a comprehensive revision
of the genus Oryza. He divided the Oryza species into two major
categories, based mainly on morphological variation. The first
group contained morphologically distinct species, such as O.
schlechteri, O. australiensis, O. brachyantha, O. coarctata, O.
angustifolia, O. perrieri, and O. tisseranti, whereas the second
group included species with taxonomic difficulties. He placed all
species belonging to the second group into five complexes, i.e.,
O. latifolia complex (7 species), O. sativa complex (3 species),
O. glaberrima complex (3 species), O. ridleyi complex (2
species), and O. meyeriana complex (2 species). Species between
different complexes had a distinct morphological variation, but
species within complexes had an ambiguous delimitation.
Following this concept, Vaughan (1989) developed a classification
system and recognized 22 species in four complexes (Table 2),
with two species, O. brachyantha and O. schlechteri, outside of
these four complexes. The significant change in this Oryza
classification system is that, based on a thorough study of target
plant materials from all over the world, Vaughan (1989) removed
a few species from Oryza and made the delimitation of this genus
more reasonable. He also provided distribution maps of all Oryza
species and available genomic data for most species, which largely
promoted a better understanding of the species relationships in
the genus. In his later publication titled “The wild relatives of
rice: a genetic resources handbook,” Vaughan (1994) provided
further information for each Oryza species, such as morphological
characterization, distribution, habitat, and species affinities within
the genus. He also included his newly published species, Oryza
rhizomatis Vaughan from Sri Lanka, in this handbook.
A proposed taxonomic treatment
Since the publication of Sharma and Shastry’s taxonomic systems
(1965, 1972), several newly described species, such as O.
meridionalis Ng, O. rhizomatis, and O. neocaledonica Morat,
have been added to Oryza. On the other hand, some species
recognized by Sharma and Shastry (1965, 1972) in their systems,
such as O. cubensis Ekman, O. malampuzhaensis Krish. et
Chand., O. angustifolia Hubb., O. perrieri Camus, and O.
tisseranti A. Chev., have been either considered as invalid epithets
or moved from Oryza to other genera of the Oryzeae. The generic
delimitation of Oryza by Sharma and Shastry (1965, 1972)
therefore needs to be updated to respond to current changes in
the genus. Vaughan’s classification (1989) better reflects the
current circumscription and enumeration of the genus Oryza,
but unfortunately the subdivisional rank “complex” that he
adopted in his system has no legal standing in the International
Code of Botanic Nomenclature (Art. 21.1, Greuter et al 1994). In
addition, this classification system leaves two species outside of
Table 2. Subdivisional treatments of Oryza by different rice taxonomists.
Roschevicz
Chevalier
Ghose et al
Sharma & Shastry
b
Tateoka
c
Oka
Vaughan
c
(1931)
(1932)
(1965)
(1965, 1972)
(1963)
(1988)
(1989)
Sect. Sativa
Sect. Euoryza
Sect. Sativa
Sect. Oryza
O. latifolia
Sect. Oryzae
O. sativa
Sect. Granulata
Sect. Padia
Sect. Officinalis
Ser. Latifoliae
O. sativa
Sect. Schlechterianae
O. officinalis
Sect. Coarctata
a
Sect. Sclerophyllum
a
Sect. Granulata
Ser. Sativae
O. glaberrima
Sect. Granulatae
O. ridleyi
Sect. Rhynchoryza
a
Sect. Rhynchoryza
a
Sect. Padia
O. ridleyi
Sect. Ridleyanae
O. meyeriana
Ser. Schlechterianae
O. meyeriana
Sect. Angustifoliae
a
Others
e
Ser. Meyerianae
Others
d
Sect. Coarctatae
a
Ser. Ridleyanae
Sect. Angustifolia
a
Ser. Brachanthae
Ser. Perrierianae
a
All or some species in this section are no longer included in Oryza. 
b
The treatments by Sharma & Shastry in 1965 and 1972 were essentially the same. In the earlier treatment (1965),
Sect. Oryza included the third Ser. Australienses. 
c
The entity “complex” was used as a subdivisional rank. 
d
Five species were placed outside of any of the complexes. 
e
Two species were
placed outside of any of the complexes.Page 4

7
IRRN 24.3
any of the complexes, which makes the classification incomplete.
I therefore propose a taxonomic system of Oryza basically
following the classification into three sections suggested by
Sharma and Shastry (1965), but with certain modifications to
match current changes in the genus. In my proposed system, 24
species are recognized and placed in three sections, i.e., Sect.
Padia (with 3 series and 6 species), Sect. Oryza (3 series and 17
species), and the newly established Sect. Brachyantha (1 series
and 1 species). This classification mirrors appropriately the
enumeration of Oryza species and their relationships, and it also
gains support through many morphological, cytological, and
molecular studies of the genus.
I. Sect. Padia (Zoll. et Mor.) Baill. (Type: O. granulata Nees et
Arn. ex Watt).
1. Ser. Meyerianae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O.
granulata).
O. granulata
O. meyeriana (Roll. et Mor. ex Steud.) Baill.
O. neocaledonica Morat
2. Ser. Ridleyanae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O. ridleyi
Hook. f.).
O. longiglumis Jansen
O. ridleyi
3. Ser. Schlechterianae Sharma et Shastry. (Type:
O. schlechteri Pilger).
O. schlechteri
II. Sect. Brachyantha B.R. Lu, sect. nov. (Type: O. brachyantha
Chev. et Roehr.).
Plantae graciles, annuae; culmi tenues, erecti, glabri; folia
linearia; inflorescentia erecta, racemosa; rami principes
inflorescentiae flexui, nervosi; spicula linearia oblongaque, 8.5-9
× 0.8-1.8 mm; lemmata sterilia glabra, subulata, 1-2 
× 8.5-9 mm,
aliquando absentia; rachila curvata lunae instar; lemma fertilis
mucronatum, 6-8 mm longum, 0.8-1.5 mm latum; aristae robustae,
scabrae, 6-10 cm longae; antherae 1.8-2.5 mm longae.
Plants gracile, annual; culms slender, erect, glabrous; leaves
linear; inflorescence erect, racemose; main axes of inflorescence
flexuous, ribbed; spikelets oblong-linear, 8.5-9 
× 0.8-1.8 mm;
sterile lemmas glabrous, subulate, 1-2 mm long, sometimes
absent; rachilla bent in a comma-shape; fertile lemma mucronate,
6-8 
× 0.8-1.5 mm; awns robust, scabrous, 6-10 cm long; anthers
1.8-2.5 mm long.
4. Ser. Brachyanthae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O.
brachyantha).
O. brachyantha
III. Sect. Oryza. (Type: O. sativa L.).
5. Ser. Latifoliae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O. latifolia
Desv.).
O. alta Swallen
O. eichingeri A. Peter
O. grandiglumis (Doell) Prod.
O. latifolia
O. minuta J.S. Presl. et C.B. Presl.
O. officinalis Wall. ex Watt
O. punctata Kotechy ex Steud.
O. rhizomatis Vaughan
6. Ser. Australienses Tateoka ex Sharma et Shastry. (Type:
O. australiensis Domin.).
O. australiensis
7. Ser. Sativae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O. sativa L.).
O. barthii A. Chev.
O. glaberrima Steud.
O. glumaepatula Steud.
O. longistaminata Chev. et Roehr.
O. meridionalis Ng
O. nivara Sharma et Shastry
O. rufipogon Griff.
O. sativa
References
Baillion N. 1894. Histoire des plantes. Vol. XII, Paris.
Bellon MR, Brar DS, Lu BR, Pham JL. 1998. Rice genetic resources. In:
Dowling NG, Greenfield SM, Fischer KS, editors. Sustainability of rice in
the global food system. Davis, Calif. (USA): Pacific Basin Study Center
and Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. p 251–
283.
Brar SD, Khush GS. 1997. Alien introgression in rice. Plant Mol. Biol. 35:35–
47.
Chang TT. 1985. Crop history and genetic conservation: rice – a case study.
Iowa State J. Res. 59:425–455.
Chatterjee D. 1948. A modified key and enumeration of the species of Oryza
L. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 18:185–192.
Chevalier A. 1932. Nouvelle contribution a l’etude systematique des Oryza.
Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 12:1014–1032.
Ghose RLM, Ghatge MB, Subramanyan V. 1965. Rice in India. New Delhi
(India): Indian Council of Agicultural Research. 507 p.
Greuter W, Burdet HM, Chaloner WG, Demoulin V, Nicolson DH, Silva PC,
editors. 1988. International Code of Botanic Nomenclature. Adopted by
the Fourteenth International Botanical Congress, Berlin, July-August
1987, Regnum Vegetabile.
Linnaeus C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Vol. I. Stockholm. Facsimile edition.
Lu BR, Naredo MEB, Juliano AB, Jackson MT. 1998. Taxonomic status of
Oryza glumaepatula Steud. III. Assessment of genomic affinity among
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4th International Rice Genetics Symposium set for
October 2000
The Fourth International Rice Genetics Symposium (IRGS) will be
held at IRRI on 22-27 October 2000. The first IRGS was held in
1985. It led to the birth of the Rice Genetics Cooperative (RGC),
which aimed to promote international cooperation in rice genetics.
The same year, the Rockefeller Foundation organized the Interna-
tional Program on Rice Biotechnology, which has played a major
role in advancing the frontiers of rice science, international
collaboration, and human resource development in rice. During
the second IRGS (held in 1990), a unified numbering system for
rice chromosomes and linkage groups was established. More than
500 scientists from 31 countries participated in the third IRGS (held
in 1995). Correct orientation of classical and molecular linkage maps
was one of the symposium highlights.
Major advances in the genetics and molecular biology of
rice have become apparent during the past 15 years. A high-density
molecular genetic map of more than 2,300 DNA markers has been
developed and several genes of economic importance as well as
quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been tagged with molecular
markers. Synteny relationships between genomes of rice and
several other cereals have been established. Molecular marker-
aided selection is being used to move genes from one varietal
background to another and to pyramid genes. Scientists have
developed BAC and YAC libraries and are using them in the physical
mapping of the rice genome. A map-based cloning strategy has
been used to isolate agronomically important genes. Regeneration
from protoplasts of many indica and japonica varieties has allowed
researchers to introduce novel genes into elite germplasm through
transformation. More recently, biolistic and Agrobacterium-medi-
ated transformation procedures have become available.
International programs on rice genome sequencing and functional
genomics have been established. These developments have opened
new frontiers in rice molecular biology, particularly for
understanding the genetic architecture of traits and their
manipulation, modifying gene expression, genome sequencing,
functional genomics, and gene discovery. Researchers are using
these breakthroughs to develop rice varieties with higher yield
potential and yield stability for feeding 50% more rice consumers
by 2025.
The fourth IRGS will feature plenary sessions, oral presen-
tations, and poster sessions. Participants will discuss the latest de-
velopments in rice systematics and evolution, cytogenetics, classical
genetics, tissue and cell culture, molecular markers, genetic engi-
neering, and genomics.

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Morphology of RICE-2

Oryza sativa L.
Local Name: Dhan
English Name: Paddy (Rice)

Introduction:
Rice is grown as a food crop. It is the staple food of more than 60 percent of the world’s population. About 90 percent of all the rice grown in the world is produced and consumed in Asian region. The genus Oryza L. is classified under the tribe Oryzeae, subfamily Oryzoideae, of the grass family Poaceae (Gramineae). This genus has two cultivated species (O. sativa L. and O. glaberrima Steud) and more than 20 wild species are found distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. The chromosome number of rice (2n) is 24. 

Growth Habit: It is freely tillering annual herb, cultivated or wild, 50-150 cm long but deep water rice may be 5 m. long.

Root: It has fibrous root system. Seminal roots occur at the early stages. Mature roots are also fibrous and produce smaller roots called rootlets. All roots have root hairs to absorb moisture and nutrients. There are two kinds of mature roots:

1. Secondary adventitious roots
2. Adventitious prop roots or prop roots.

Secondary adventitious roots are produced from the underground nodes of young tillers. As the plant grows, coarse adventitious prop roots often form above the soil surface in whorls from the nodes of the culm.

Stem: It is often called culm which is more or less erect and generally 50-150 cm. long and 6-10 mm. in diameter. The jointed stem or culm is made up of a series of nodes and internodes. Young internodes are smooth and solid. Mature internodes are hollow and finely grooved with a smooth outer surface. Generally, internodes increase in length from the lower to the upper portions of the plant. The lower internodes at the plant base are short and thick. The node is the solid portion of the culm. The node or nodal region bears a leaf and a bud. The bud is attached to the upper portion of the node and is enclosed by the leaf sheath. The bud may give rise to a leaf or a tiller. Early tillers arise from the main culm in an alternate pattern. 

Leaf: The node or nodal region of the culm bears a leaf. Leaves are borne alternately on the culm in opposite directions. One leaf is produced at each node. Varieties differ in the number of leaves produced. The topmost leaf below the panicle is the flag leaf. The flag leaf contributes largely to the filling of grains because it supplies photosynthetic products, mainly to the panicle. The leaf sheath and leaf blade are continuous. A circular collar joins the leaf blade and the leaf sheath. The leaf sheath is wrapped around the culm above the node. Leaf blades are generally flat. Varieties differ in blade length, width, thickness, area, shape, color, angle and pubescence. With many parallel veins on the upper surface of the leaf, the underside of the leaf blade is smooth with a prominent ridge in the middle; the midrib. Most leaves possess small, paired ear-like appendages on either side of the base of the blade. These appendages are called auricles. Auricles may not be present on older leaves. Another leaf appendage is the ligule, a papery membrane at the inside juncture between the leaf sheath and the blade. It can have either a smooth or hair-like surface. The length, color, and shape of the ligule differ according to variety. 

Inflorescence: Terminal panicle of spikelets; partly covered by leaf sheath, rachis of panicle slightly angular, glabrous, somewhat hairy at nodes; erect or curved; one to many branches given out from each node, compact or loose. It is 14-42 cm. long with 50-500 spikelets and the base of the panicle is enclosed by a sheath of Flag leaf.
 
 Spikelets: Spikelets are borne by panicle. Each spikelet later develops to a grain. These spikelets are borne on the primary and secondary branches. These are the basic unit of the inflorescence and panicle. It consists of the pedicel and the floret. The floret is borne on the pedicel. The rudimentary glumes are the laterally enlarged, cuplike apex of the pedicel. The rudimentary glumes are the lowermost parts of the spikelet. During threshing, the rudimentary glumes are separated from the rest of the spikelet. The sterile lemmas are small, bract like projections attached to the floret. The rachilla is a small axis that bears the single floret. It is between the sterile lemmas and the floret. The rachilla, sterile lemmas and the rudimentary glumes all support the floret. The floret includes the lemma, palea, and the flower. The larger protective glume covering the floret is called the lemma and the smaller one is referred to as the palea. Both the lemma and palea have ridges referred to as nerves. The lemma has five while the palea has three nerves. The middle nerve of the lemma can be either smooth or hairy. The lemma has a constricted structure at its end called the keel. In some varieties, the keel is elongated into a thin extension, the awn.

Flowers: The floret contains a flower. The flower consists of a pistil (female organ) and six stamens (male organs).The stamens have two-celled anthers borne on slender filaments. The pistil contains one ovule and bears a double-plumed stigma on a short style. At the flower’s base near the palea are two transparent structures known as lodicules. The lodicules thrust the lemma and palea apart at flowering to enable the elongating stamens to emerge out of the open floret. The lemma and palea close after the anthers have shed their pollen.

Fruit: The dehulled rice grain is called caryopsis which consists of brownish pericarp layers that envelope it. Next to the pericarp layers are the two tegmen layers and the aleurone layers.

Floral formula: Br. % P2 (lodicules) A 3+3 G1

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Morphology of RICE

Germinating seed
When the seed germinates in well-drained and well-aerated soil, the coleorhiza, a covering enclosing the radicle or primary root, protrudes first.
 
 
 
Shortly after the coleorhiza appears, the radicle or primary root breaks through the covering.
 
Two or more sparsely branched seminal roots follow. These roots eventually die and are replaced by many secondary adventitious roots.
 

If the seed germinates in water, the coleoptile, a covering enclosing the young shoot, emerges ahead of the coleorhiza. The coleoptile emerges as a tapered cylinder.
 

Seedling
The mesocotyl or basal portion of the coleoptile elongates when the seed germinates in soil, and in darkness. It pushes the coleoptile above the soil surface.
 

The first seedling leaf, or primary leaf, emerges from the growing seed. It is green and shaped like a cylinder. It has no blade. The second leaf is a complete leaf. It is differentiated into a leaf blade and a leaf sheath.

 
Tiller
The seedling will grow and develop branched tillers. Parts of the rice tiller include the roots, culm and leaves. Mature roots of the rice plant are fibrous and produce smaller roots called rootlets. All roots have root hairs to absorb moisture and nutrients.
 

There are two kinds of mature roots:
1. secondary adventitious roots
2. adventitious prop roots prop roots.
 

 
Secondary adventitious roots are produced from the underground nodes of young tillers.
 
 
As the plant grows, coarse adventitious prop roots often form above the soil surface in whorls from the nodes of the culm.
 


 
Culm
The culm, or jointed stem of the rice, is made up of a series of nodes and internodes.
 

 
Young internodes are smooth and solid. Mature internodes are hollow and finely grooved with a smooth outer surface. Generally, internodes increase in length from the lower to the upper portions of the plant. The lower internodes at the plant base are short and thick.
 
The node is the solid portion of the culm. The node or nodal region bears a leaf and a bud. The bud is attached to the upper portion of the node and is enclosed by the leaf sheath. The bud may give rise to a leaf or a tiller.
 

 
Early tillers arise from the main culm in an alternate pattern. Primary tillers originate from the lowermost nodes and give rise to secondary tillers. Secondary tillers produce tertiary tillers.
 

 

 
Leaf
The node or nodal region of the culm will bear a leaf.
 
Leaves are borne alternately on the culm in opposite directions. One leaf is produced at each node. Varieties differ in the number of leaves produced.
 
The topmost leaf below the panicle is the flag leaf. The flag leaf contributes largely to the filling of grains because it supplies photosynthetic products, mainly to the panicle.
  
The leaf sheath and leaf blade are continuous.
 
A circular collar joins the leaf blade and the leaf sheath.

The leaf sheath is wrapped around the culm above the node.
 

The swelling at the base of the leaf sheath, just above the node, is the sheath pulvinus. It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the node.
 

Leaf blades are generally flat. Varieties differ in blade length, width, thickness, area, shape, color, angle and pubescence.
 

With many parallel veins on the upper surface of the leaf, the underside of the leaf blade is smooth with a prominent ridge in the middle; the midrib.
 
Most leaves possess small, paired ear-like appendages on either side of the base of the blade. These appendages are called auricles. Auricles may not be present on older leaves. Another leaf appendage is the ligule, a papery membrane at the inside juncture between the leaf sheath and the blade. It can have either a smooth or hair-like surface. The length, color, and shape of the ligule differ according to variety.
 
 
Although similar, rice seedlings are different from common grasses. While rice plants have both auricles and ligules, common grassy weeds found in rice fields normally do not have these features. These characteristics are often helpful in identifying weeds in rice fields when the plants are young.
 
Panicle and Spikelets
The terminal component of the rice tiller is an inflorescence call the panicle. The inflorescence or panicle is borne on the uppermost internode of the culm. The panicle bears rice spikelets, which develop into grains.
 
The panicle base often appears as a hairlike ring and is used as a dividing point in measuring culm and panicle length. The panicle base is often called the neck.
 
The panicle axis is continuous and hollow except at the nodes where branches are borne.
 
The swellings at the panicle axis where the branches are borne are referred to as the panicle pulvinus.
 
Each node on the main panicle axis gives rise to primary branches which in turn bears secondary branches. Primary branches may be arranged singly or in pairs.
 
The panicles bear spikelets, most of which develop into grains. These spikelets are borne on the primary and secondary branches. The spikelet is the basic unit of the inflorescence and panicle. It consists of the pedicel and the floret.
 
The floret is borne on the pedicel.
 
 
The rudimentary glumes are the laterally enlarged, cuplike apex of the pedicel. The rudimentary glumes are the lowermost parts of the spikelet. During threshing, the rudimentary glumes are separated from the rest of the spikelet.
 
The sterile lemmas are small, bractlike projections attached to the floret. The rachilla is a small axis that bears the single floret. It is between the sterile lemmas and the floret.
 
Floret
The rachilla, sterile lemmas and the rudimentary glumes all support the floret. The floret includes the lemma, palea, and the flower.
 
The larger protective glume covering the floret is called the lemma and the smaller one is referred to as the palea.
 
 
Both the lemma and palea have ridges referred to as nerves. The lemma has five while the palea has three. The middle nerve of the lemma can be either smooth or hairy.
 
The lemma has a constricted structure at its end called the keel. In some varieties, the keel is elongated into a thin extension, the awn.
 
Flower
The floret contains a flower. The flower consists of a pistil (female organ) and six stamens (male organs).
 
 
The stamens have two-celled anthers borne on slender filaments.
 
 
The pistil contains one ovule and bears a double-plumed stigma on a short style.
 
At the flower’s base near the palea are two transparent structures known as lodicules. The lodicules thrust the lemma and palea apart at flowering to enable the elongating stamens to emerge out of the open floret. The lemma and palea close after the anthers have shed their pollen.
 
Rice grain
The rice grain is the ripened ovary, with the lemma, palea, rachilla, sterile lemmas and the awn firmly attached to it.
 
The rice hull includes the lemma and palea and their associated structures – the sterile lemmas, rachilla, and awn.
 
 
The dehulled rice grain is called caryopsis, commonly referred to as brown rice because of three brownish pericarp layers that envelope it. Next to the pericarp layers are the two tegmen layers and the aleurone layers.
 
The remaining part of the grain consists of the endosperm and the embryo. The endosperm provides nourishment to the germinating embryo. The embryo lies on the belly side of the grain and is enclosed by the lemma. It is the embryonic organ of the seed. 
  
The embryo contains the plumule (embryonic leaves) and the radicle (embryonic primary root).

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Morphology of SUGARCANE

English name: Sugarcane.
Bengali name: Aukh.
Botanical name: Cultivated sugarcane has three species
a) Saccharum officinarum
b) Saccharum sinense
c) Saccharum barberi  
Family: Gramineae.
Ploidy level: Diploid, 2n=80
Plant type: Sugarcane is tall perennial plant growing erect even upto 5to 6 meters.
Root system: Fibrous.
Stem / Stalk: Roughly cylindrical, composed of many distinct nodes and internodes. At each node there is a bud. It is known as “eye” appearing on opposite sides of the cane. Just below the bud is a raised position known as leaf scar. Immediately above each node, 2 or 3 translucent dot like structures known as root primordial.
Leaves: Alternate, leaf of the sugarcane consist of a sheath and blade with ligule in between. The sheath is attached with the stalk by basal ring.
Inflorescence: The inflorescence called an arrow. The arrangement of the spikelets is racemose.
Flower: Empty glume and palea. The flowers are small, bisexual.
Perianth: Absent or reduced to usually 2 to3 minute seeds called lodicules.
Androecium: Stamens 1 to 6 or rarely more but usually 3 in each floret, the old stamen is always anterior, filaments free, anther dithecous, basifixed or versatile.
Gynoecium: Bi or tricarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, unilocular containing 1 anatropous ovule, basal placentation, style 1 to 3, often plumose or feather like.
Fruit: Caryopsis.
Floral formula: 0 , 0, P 2 or 3 or absent, A 3 or 1- 6, G (2-3)

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Morphology of Soyabean

Bengali name: Gari kalai / Talkalai / soyabean

English name: Soybean

Scientific name: Glycine max

Family: Leguminous.

Origin: China

Climate: Is a subtropical plant. Best adapted to warm and humid climate; grown during hot summer in temperate areas. Can be grown as rainfed crops in areas having 600mm well distributed rainfall. Optimum temperature 75-85° F.

Soil: Perform better in alluvial / clay loam soils. Sensitive to alkali; pH 6.0-6.5 is regarded optimum.

Land preparation: 4 plowing + 2-3 laddering.

Seed rate & sowing time: For seed and production purpose: mid December-mid January
  For seed and production purpose: September- October
  For only seed: end of July-end of August.
 
Seed rate is for G-2: 35-40 kg / ha. Shohag: 70-80 kg / ha,  
  For small seeds: 50-60 kg / ha, for large seeds: 70-80 kg / ha
Line sowing; spacing 30-40 cm, broadcasting, dribbling (2-4 seeds / drill)
Dept of sowing is 3-5cm.

Weeding: Should be kept free up to 35 Das
Two hand weeding at 15 DAS and 35 DAS

Fertilizer dose: Urea…………….50-60 kg / ha
  TSP……………..150-175 kg / ha
  MP………………100-110 kg / ha
  Gypsum………….80-115 kg / ha
  Used during final land preparation.

Irrigation: Flower initiation and pod filling stage

Varieties: Shohag (PB-1), Bangladeshi soybean ( G-2), Bragg, Davis

Harvesting: Leaves turn yellow and fall off. Pods turn brown.

Yield: 1500-2000 kg / ha

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Morphology of Safflower

Local name: Kusum ful.

Botanical name: Carthamus tinctorius.

Family: Compositae.

Plant type: Highly branched, herbaceous, thistle like annual plant varying in height from 30-150 cm.

Root system: Has strong and thick taproot. There also some thin roots present laterally.

Stem: The stem branches prolifically near the top.
Thick at the base and tapering with height.

Leaf arrangement: The branched stem bear spirally arranged leaves .the leaves are sessile dark green with a pronounced mid rib. Leaves are toothed along their margins with short spines scattered along the margins. Lower leaves are generally spineless and in most varieties the upper leaves are strongly spined.

Inflorescence: Each branch terminates in a typical head type of inflorescence .The inflorescence is broad, flat, and slightly curved.

Flower: Flower is complete and perfect .The flower are of brilliant yellow to orange or orange red color, contents 20-100 individual florets each of which produces a seed.

Fruit: The fruit is smooth, shiny white ashen, very angular and nearly wedge shaped less than 1.5 cm in length.

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Oil Seed Production in Bangladesh

OIL SEED:
Present consuming of fat → 8 g /head /day.
Among this
5 gm (vegetable fat)
3 gm (animal fat mainly fish, cereals, vegetables fat)
But our daily requirement is 30-40 gm/head/day.

Constrains of oil seed production:
→ Comparing crops are more profitable.
→ Competition for land by HYV boro and wheat.
→ Yielding of local varieties is low, particularly under very poor agronomic management practices.
→ Some cash crops in competition enjoy high subsides and credit support. No such support is available for oilseed.
→ Even when there is high premium or domestic mustard oil, the profit does not necessarily go to farmers.
→ Mpoot of soil at subsidized rates in working as a disincentive (AbymvwnZ Kiv) to the farmers.
→ Lower returns on inputs on oil seed production works as disincentive.
→ Poor storage and processing facilities exist at rural and bulk handling levels.
→ Non availability of efficient and cost effective extraction mills at rural levels.

Opportunities: 
a) Setting up of realistic production goals, get all necessary inputs recognized and initiate the plan of operations in a systematic and coordinated (mgwbZ) manner.
b) Strengthen the breeding programmed.
c) Prepare separate packages for rainfed and irrigated conditions.
d) Back up research and extension programs with adequate credit input and seed production facilities.
e) Setup model production and demonstration hlocks for major oil seed groups.
f) Assure farmers of incentive prices.
g) Follow on important policy that gradually minimized imports and does not work against the interest of farmers and oil processors.
h) Improve storage facilities for seed.
i) Deal with items listed from a to h simultaneously. These measures are mutually supportive not alternative.

Why mustard is important and widely grown oil seed crop in Bangladesh?
→ Wide adaptability.
→ Consumer preference.
→ Assured marked.
→ Easy of harvesting and processing.
→ Fewer post harvest problem.
→ Compatibility under intercropped systems.

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Morphology of Mustard

Crop name: Mustard (Brassica sp.)

Origin: Eurasian origin.

  Climate: Grows well in cool and moist climate (below 25c). In general, high temperatures (higher than 25) cause a sharp decrease in oil content.

  Soil: Fairly tolerant to salinity and prefer well-aerated soils and cannot resist 
  water logging. It can be grown in light, sandy soils.
  In Bangladesh, silty soil.

  Land preparation: 3 ploughing + 4 laddering in light soils.
  6 ploughing + 7 laddering in heavy soils.
  Varieties: SS- (Sonali sarisha), TS- 72 (Kalyania), Sampad, Sambal, Daulat, Tori-7, Rai-5, BARI Sarisha-6, 7, 8

  Seed rate & Sowing time: -Traditionally last week of October. Better time for 
  sowing mustard is November 1-15 in dry areas.
  -November 15- early December in other areas.
  -Generally seed rate is 7.5-10 kg/ha.
  -Both line sowing and broadcasting.
  -In case of line sowing 25-30 cm apart.

  Weeding: Two weeding at 15 and 40 DAS after sowing.

  Water management: Irrigated crop, in adequate moisture supply, yield
  Increases sharply.
  -Very sensitive to water stress in case of flowering and pod filling.
  -Two irrigations- one at 35 DAS & another at pod filling stage.
-½ kg Urea + all fertilizers should be applied during land preparation.
  -Rest of urea applied during flowering.


  Harvesting: The crop is taken to be mature when stems and pods become yellow, 
  Seed takes black and the pods give rattling sound.

  Yield: Average yields 700 kg/ha.  

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Morphology of MUNG BEAN

Bengali name: Sona mug
English name: Green gram
Botanical name: Vigna radiata (L.)
Family: Liguminosae

Botanical characteristics

Root: Deep rooted plant; the lateral branches of roots contain nodules, which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Stem: Herbaceous, branching at the base and covered with short, fine, brownish hairs.
Leaves: Alternate, trifoliate with long petioles. Each leaflets being large, ovate, rounded at the base and pointed at the apex.
Infloroscence: Racemose, bears 10-25 flowers.
Flowers: Greenish to bright yellow with a gray tinged keel, 1-1.75cm in diameter.
Calyx: 5 sepals more or less united in a tube and persistent, aestivation imbricates.
Corolla: 5 petals, very unequal and papilionaceous (i.e.1-posterior petal is largest and called standard or vexillum, 2-lateral petals are lanceolate and slightly curved and called wings or alae and 2-anterior petals are asymmetrical and more or less united to form a boat shaped structure and called keel or karina); aestivation is vexillary i.e. standard covers the wings and the wings cover the keel; all petals have a claw at the base.
Androecium: 10 stamens, diadelphous, usually (9)+1,anthers are dithecous, introrse and dehisce by longitudinal slits.
Gynoecium: Monocarpellary ;ovary superior, unilocular ;ovules numerous; marginal placentation; style and stigma simple.
Fruit: Pod.
Seed: Small, slightly flattened, globular with green, yellow, tawny brown, black or mottled testa. 
Floral formula: Br, %, 0, K (5), C1+2+(2), A (9)+1,G1

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Morphology og SUNFLOWER

Local name: Surjyamukhi.

Botanical name: Helianthus annuus

Family: Compositae

Plant type: An annual, erect, and a herbaceous plant growing to a height of 1.5 to 6.0 m.
Root: Has a tap and branched root system.

Stem: Stem is 2.5 to 7.5 cm in diameter, rough hairy or hispid, usually without branches terminating in a capitulum.

Leaves: Simple, alternate with stout petioles, somewhat lanceolate in shape and about 5 to 25 cm long and two thirds as wide. Leaves are rough on both surfaces and irregularly toothed on the margins.

Inflorescence: Sunflower is protendrous, in which the male and female parts mature at different times. Racemes, head or capitulum consisting of ray and disc florets. Heads are 10 to 50 cm in diameter with 40 to 80 rays and brown or black disc.

Ray floret: Marginal star shaped ones

Calyx: Either absent or represented 2 or 3 scales superior.

Corolla: 2-5, gamopetalous, ligulate superior, yellow.

Androecium: Absent.

Gynoecium: 2, bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary inferior, unilocular, single base ovule, basal placentation, style single, and stigma bifid.  

Fruit: Cypsela.

Floral formula: %  0 K0 (2-5 scales), C(5), A 0, G(2).

Disc floret: Central tubular ones.

Calyx: Either absent or represented 2 or 3 scales superior.

Corolla and androecium: 5, syngenesious, epipetalous, alternate to petals, filaments free, anther bicelled, and superior.
  
Gynoecium: 2, bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary inferior, unilocular, single base ovule, basal placentation, style single, and stigma bifid.  

Floral formula: Br.  0 K0 (2-5 scales), C (5), A (5), G (2).

Seeds: A single flower head produces 350 to 2000 seeds. Seeds are generally less than 1.5 cm long pointed at the base and round at end. Color of seeds may be white, black or black white with stripes.

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Pests of Medical Importance :-1

Many dangerous diseases are transmitted through the agency of insects. Insect-borne diseases take a heavy toll of human life. About a million of people die and a few hundred million suffer from such diseases throughout the world within a year. About 400 million people live in areas where malaria is still highly endemic. It is estimated that at least 100 million cases occur annually resulting in death of one million. Filariasis is a common disease in tropical areas affecting more than 250 million people. The number of deaths due to plague during 1898-1957 has been estimated, up to 12,707,475. Similarly, between 1970-1980, sleeping sickness took toil of one million lives in West Africa.


A MODE OF TRANSMISSION

The insects often transmit pathogens at the time of blood sucking. The pathogens are mostly the bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, spirochaetes, protozoans and helminths. The insects transmit these pathogens primarily in three ways (Chamberlain and Sudia (1961): mechanical transmission, biological transmission, and myiasis.


1.The Mechanical Transmission :

It is of two types - indirect and direct.

1) Indirect Mechanical Transmission :

It is the exogenous infection carried out with the help of feet or body of an insect. It is indirect transmission, in that, . the insect acts merely as a passive agent, e.g., housefly.

The common housefly, Musca domestics visits infected human faeces or dirty places and picks up pathogenic microbes on their legs and other parts of body and subsequently contaminate human food- stuff. It spreads various dangerous diseases such as; typhoid by Salmonella typhi, summer diarrhoea and dysentery by Entoamoeba and cholera by a bacterium Vibrio cholerae transmission.

il) Direct Mechanical Transmission :

It is the endogenous contamination made due to direct way in which the insect picks up the germs from an infected animal and directly inoculate them into the blood of a host animal : e.g., common eye fly, cyclorrhaphan, Siphunculina funicola is responsible for spreading conjunctivitis (viral infection) from man to man. Other eyeflies are Hippelates, Chlorichaeta tuberculoso etc..


2. The Biological Transmission :

The Insect plays a part in the life of the pathogenic organism. It may be of three types; (I) propagative, (H) cyclopropagative and (iii) cyclodevelopmental.

1) Propagative Transmission :

The pathogen undergoes no cyclic changes but simply multiplies inside the body of insect as in an artificial culture tube. Most of the bacterial and viral multiplication occurs in the same way e.g., Bubonic plague. The Bacillus pesos germs are swallowed by a flea during feeding the blood from an infected rat They multiply in a sort of filtering chamber of the gut and then they are transmitted to a man in the nod biting.

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ROLES OF NGOS IN AGROFORESTRY IN BANGLADESH

>> Friday, August 20, 2010

1. An evolution if involvement of NGOs in the agroforestry reveals that they have achieved success in the following areas (ADAB, 1998):
2. In creating awareness among the people regarding the need to plant trees in farm land and the economic and commercial values of trees.
3. In emphasizing the role of agroforestry as a sustainable means of creating employment opportunities, augmenting income, improving the state of use of marginal land and also as an effective tool of poverty alleviation in the rural sector.
4. In organizing the rural poor, landless farmers, unemployed youth and other socioeconomically marginalized people into coherent, functional and self sustained groups undertaking different income generating activities including agroforestry (Farrington et. al., 1989).
5. In helping the enrichment and replenishment of the depleting homesteads.
6. In expanding the horizon of thought and practice of planting trees with wide spacing and proper trimming agricultural lands also without hampering the output of main crops.
7. In creating increasing interest among the rural land owners to use their personal marginal lands for establishing woodlots.
8. In infusing an idea of balanced planning of homesteads by selecting different varieties and species of timber, fruit, fuel, fodder, bamboo saplings for plantation so that need for all types of forest products can be met from local sources (Huda, 1987).
9. In helping establishment of nurseries by groups, individuals, model nurseries by NGOs are working as practical guide for setting up such nurseries by private individuals. It is worth mentioning that the number of private nurseries in Bangladesh has increased about 4000 from a few hundreds during the last three to four years. This has resulted due to the large demand created for saplings for plantation and the training and support being organized by a large number of NGOs.
10. The NGOs are also playing a very important role in organizing training of their target groups in forestry techniques, improved silvicultural practices and also different updated methods of nursery raising and tree improvement. This is helping in improving the variety and quantity of the rural woodlots and homesteads.
11. It has been marked that compared to govt. social forestry programmes, the number of women participants is much higher in NGO social forestry programmes.
12. A number of NGOs like Proshika MUK, Bangladesh POUSH, BRAC, and SDC etc. have development different successful and innovative approaches and models social and agroforestry, which have gained better acceptability among the people. Replication of these pragmatic and need based models is progressing rapidly and the process is showing remarkable spontaneous response from the people (Hossain, 1992).
13. In areas where govt. programmes are facing difficulty due to bureauticratic constraints, credibility gap, lack of proper commitment, field level involvement and proper orientation, the NGOs are playing a supplementary role to fill up the gaps and collaborating with govt. agencies to remove the constraints.

Posted by:

Bismark Bangali

Training & Media Communication Officer,

SAFE, Bangladesh

Read more...

APPROACHES OF NGOS IN AGROFORESTRY

The NGOs play important role in Agroforestry development. The approaches and roles of different NGOs are mentioned in below.

1. Targeting the Farmer

First off all, the NGOs worked invite farmers including men and women in a meeting. After gathering the farmer, they give information about agroforestry and tree plantation to the farmers. The workers also take information of lands, economic conditions and family status. Then, they select the poor and marginal farmers who show interest to plant the trees in the Agroforestry system. They build up the tree farmers with the selected farmers.


2. Motivation the Farmer
They gathered the poor farmers and women and give idea about Agroforestry. They also give consultation about the benefits of Agroforestry and important role to environment. The NGO workers informed the poor farmers about the more income through Agroforestry than the monoculture. They also understand the farmers the importance of trees for our life. They promise to the farmer that if they do Agroforestry in their land, the concerned NGO will provide all kind of required assistance such as technical, financial, instrumental and others. In these ways, the NGO motivate the farmer to do Agroforestry.

3. Training

After motivation the farmer, the invested farmers are given training about Agroforestry and nursery development. They trained the farmers how to established nursery, how to plant trees in cropland, how to maintain trees and how to applied fertilizers. They also trained about silvicultural management and others. They trained the farmers about cutting, budding, grafting and collecting scion materials. The farers also get training about management and control strategy of pest and diseases in the field. The NGO workers trained the technique of plus tree selecting and mother tree orchard to produce quality-planting materials.

4. Nursery Establishment
The NGO undertake the nursery program to ensure supply of seedlings locally as most of the nurseries are located in the urban area. NGOs nursery program is carried out though homestead and large-scale nurseries. Homestead nurseries are established on about 10 – 15 decimals of homestead land. Each nursery producing 1000 seedlings annually of different fruit and fuel trees (Huq and Alim, 1995 ). Most of the NGOs have self-nursery. The NGOs produce tree, fruit and fuel species in their nursery. For establishing nursery the NGOs supply:

 High qualities seed among their numbers who are interested to established nursery.
 Loan among their beneficiaries about nursery technique and nursery diseases.
 BRAC helps to sell seedling outside commercially.
 Different types of instruments those are required for nursery establishment.



5. Selection the Land
The NGO workers select the land where Agroforestry have to do. Then the selected farmers plant trees in those lands in combination with agricultural crops. They selected the agricultural land, marginal land and homestead land for Agroforestry.

6. Species Selection
Agroforestry is a sustainable land management system with agricultural crops and forest crops. Foe established this program the NGOs select the following species-
 Long term species – Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Mehagony (Swietenia Macroplylla), Ipil- ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), Sisso (Dalbergia sissoo), Am (Mangifera indica), Lichi ( Lichi chinensis).
 Mid term species – Lemon ( Catrus spp), Guava ( Psidium guajava), Papaya ( Cariaca papaya).
 Short term species – Vegetable like cowpea ( Vigna Ungiaculata), Eggplant ( Solanum Melongata ), cauliflower , tomato, zinger etc.

7. Management System
The regional manager supervises all these Agroforestry activities and both he and sector specialist report to the programme coordinator of the rural development programme. Thus NGOs like VFFP, BRAC, Proshika, Jagorania Chakra, CARE, SDC, DANIDA, MCC, WINROCK, WAVE, RDRS, Caritas and other many NGOs. Play an important role in Agroforestry development in Bangladesh. The farmer information their problems about trees and crops during supervising the Agroforestry fields to the regional manager and other NGO workers. Then the manager calls a regional coordination meeting and invites those farmers to solve the problems. In the meeting, the NGOs workers hear the farmer’s problems, their problems and need that can not be solved in regional meeting are discussed in central meeting and solve through that meeting.

8. Providing Technical Support
NGOs provide technical training and support to the farmers. They trained the farmer about nursery establishment, nursery management, nursery pest and diseases management and control, management of seedlings, planting technique of seedling, management of trees in agricultural field, silvicultural systems, weeding systems, crops planting and managing systems, control of pests of trees and crop[s, fertilizer application, pruning of branches and collection of fruits and harvesting of trees. They also provide modern instruments and pesticides to the farmers without any cost.

The NGOs also offer training to the farmers about cutting, grafting, budding and making scion materials. Sometimes, the NGOs provide vehicles to transport their planting materials and Agroforestry products.

9. Providing Financial Support
Some NGOs provide financial support. The system of providing financial support is not same for all NGOs. They provide loan to farmers for Agroforestry activities. In the beginning, VFFP offered 100% money required for established nursery, tree plantation, maintenance and other costs for agriforestry. Now, they provide little money to the farmers.

BRAC provides money to the farmers money to the farmers about 50% of the required money. They also provide seed for nursery establishment, seedling for planting. Other NGOs like WINROCK, WAVE, RDRS, Caritas, Proshika, Jagorania Chakra, etc. also they provide monetary support, seeds and seedlings to the farmers.


10. Farmers of NMS ( Nursery malik samity)
NMS is a business association for nursery owners. Technican assistance is provided through the nursery malik samity. Nursery malik samity is been on the thana level. Nursery malik samity includes 20-30 nursery maliks. If the member of NMS is greater than 30, then in one thana more one NMS can be formed. If the number of NMS in one thana is less than 20, one NMS can cover more than one thana. A single NGO are responsible for one NMS. Technical training are imparted to a few nursery Maliks, selected by the NMS and trained NMS will pass on their training to other member of samity.

11. Tree Farmers Program
The NGOs organize a tree farmer in every month. In this program, all farmers are invited for the following reason-
 TO know the needs of all members
 TO spread out of the existing project strength and strategy to the farmers.
 TO reach to the whole community of a village through tree farmers group.
 TO know the problems of all members.
 To increase the farmers capacity.
 To improve the Agroforestry practices by the tree farmers group and their neighbors.

12. Farmer’s Capacities Development

Farmer’s capacities are developed by NGOs though holding meeting, showing VDO and spreading different types of leaflets and colorful posters organizing rallies. VFFP and Jagorania Chakra range a series of five meeting in 2003 to develop the following capacities of the farmers-
 Pest and diseases management of mango, jackfruit, coconut, guava, bamboo, betel nut, lemon and litchu in Agroforestry.

 Planting and managing techniques of crops, fruit trees and timber trees.
 Grafting, budding and cutting techniques of fruit trees.
 Importance of Agroforestry.
 Vegetable production techniques in the homestead.

All NGOs took steps like the above to develop the technical, socio-organizational and managerial capacities of their farmers.

13. Exchange visit

The NGO worker informed and trained the farmers about their annual plan operation and provide financial, technical and administrative support. Then , the farmers implement the program in their field. During implementing the program the NGO workers and administrative officers go to the field to survey and evaluate the program. In this time, they exchange their opinions about their performance with the farmers. They are also informed about the farmer’s problems and needs through the exchange visit. The NGO workers also trained the farmers about different techniques like homestead planning, cutting, budding, grafting etc.


Posted by:

Bismark Bangali

Training & Media Communication Officer

SAFE, Bangladesh

Read more...

APPROACHES OF NGOS IN AGROFORESTRY

The NGOs play important role in Agroforestry development. The approaches and roles of different NGOs are mentioned in belo

1. Targeting the Farmer
First off all, the NGOs worked invite farmers including men and women in a meeting. After gathering the farmer, they give information about agroforestry and tree plantation to the farmers. The workers also take information of lands, economic conditions and family status. Then, they select the poor and marginal farmers who show interest to plant the trees in the Agroforestry system. They build up the tree farmers with the selected farmers.
2. Motivation the Farmer
They gathered the poor farmers and women and give idea about Agroforestry. They also give consultation about the benefits of Agroforestry and important role to environment. The NGO workers informed the poor farmers about the more income through Agroforestry than the monoculture. They also understand the farmers the importance of trees for our life. They promise to the farmer that if they do Agroforestry in their land, the concerned NGO will provide all kind of required assistance such as technical, financial, instrumental and others. In these ways, the NGO motivate the farmer to do Agroforestry.

3. Training
After motivation the farmer, the invested farmers are given training about Agroforestry and nursery development. They trained the farmers how to established nursery, how to plant trees in cropland, how to maintain trees and how to applied fertilizers. They also trained about silvicultural management and others. They trained the farmers about cutting, budding, grafting and collecting scion materials. The farers also get training about management and control strategy of pest and diseases in the field. The NGO workers trained the technique of plus tree selecting and mother tree orchard to produce quality-planting materials.

4. Nursery Establishment
The NGO undertake the nursery program to ensure supply of seedlings locally as most of the nurseries are located in the urban area. NGOs nursery program is carried out though homestead and large-scale nurseries. Homestead nurseries are established on about 10 – 15 decimals of homestead land. Each nursery producing 1000 seedlings annually of different fruit and fuel trees (Huq and Alim, 1995 ). Most of the NGOs have self-nursery. The NGOs produce tree, fruit and fuel species in their nursery. For establishing nursery the NGOs supply:

 High qualities seed among their numbers who are interested to established nursery.
 Loan among their beneficiaries about nursery technique and nursery diseases.
 BRAC helps to sell seedling outside commercially.
 Different types of instruments those are required for nursery establishment.



5. Selection the Land
The NGO workers select the land where Agroforestry have to do. Then the selected farmers plant trees in those lands in combination with agricultural crops. They selected the agricultural land, marginal land and homestead land for Agroforestry.

6. Species Selection
Agroforestry is a sustainable land management system with agricultural crops and forest crops. Foe established this program the NGOs select the following species-
 Long term species – Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Mehagony (Swietenia Macroplylla), Ipil- ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), Sisso (Dalbergia sissoo), Am (Mangifera indica), Lichi ( Lichi chinensis).
 Mid term species – Lemon ( Catrus spp), Guava ( Psidium guajava), Papaya ( Cariaca papaya).
 Short term species – Vegetable like cowpea ( Vigna Ungiaculata), Eggplant ( Solanum Melongata ), cauliflower , tomato, zinger etc.

7. Management System
The regional manager supervises all these Agroforestry activities and both he and sector specialist report to the programme coordinator of the rural development programme. Thus NGOs like VFFP, BRAC, Proshika, Jagorania Chakra, CARE, SDC, DANIDA, MCC, WINROCK, WAVE, RDRS, Caritas and other many NGOs. Play an important role in Agroforestry development in Bangladesh. The farmer information their problems about trees and crops during supervising the Agroforestry fields to the regional manager and other NGO workers. Then the manager calls a regional coordination meeting and invites those farmers to solve the problems. In the meeting, the NGOs workers hear the farmer’s problems, their problems and need that can not be solved in regional meeting are discussed in central meeting and solve through that meeting.

8. Providing Technical Support
NGOs provide technical training and support to the farmers. They trained the farmer about nursery establishment, nursery management, nursery pest and diseases management and control, management of seedlings, planting technique of seedling, management of trees in agricultural field, silvicultural systems, weeding systems, crops planting and managing systems, control of pests of trees and crop[s, fertilizer application, pruning of branches and collection of fruits and harvesting of trees. They also provide modern instruments and pesticides to the farmers without any cost.

The NGOs also offer training to the farmers about cutting, grafting, budding and making scion materials. Sometimes, the NGOs provide vehicles to transport their planting materials and Agroforestry products.

9. Providing Financial Support
Some NGOs provide financial support. The system of providing financial support is not same for all NGOs. They provide loan to farmers for Agroforestry activities. In the beginning, VFFP offered 100% money required for established nursery, tree plantation, maintenance and other costs for agriforestry. Now, they provide little money to the farmers.
BRAC provides money to the farmers money to the farmers about 50% of the required money. They also provide seed for nursery establishment, seedling for planting. Other NGOs like WINROCK, WAVE, RDRS, Caritas, Proshika, Jagorania Chakra, etc. also they provide monetary support, seeds and seedlings to the farmers.
10. Farmers of NMS ( Nursery malik samity)
NMS is a business association for nursery owners. Technican assistance is provided through the nursery malik samity. Nursery malik samity is been on the thana level. Nursery malik samity includes 20-30 nursery maliks. If the member of NMS is greater than 30, then in one thana more one NMS can be formed. If the number of NMS in one thana is less than 20, one NMS can cover more than one thana. A single NGO are responsible for one NMS. Technical training are imparted to a few nursery Maliks, selected by the NMS and trained NMS will pass on their training to other member of samity.

11. Tree Farmers Program
The NGOs organize a tree farmer in every month. In this program, all farmers are invited for the following reason-
 TO know the needs of all members
 TO spread out of the existing project strength and strategy to the farmers.
 TO reach to the whole community of a village through tree farmers group.
 TO know the problems of all members.
 To increase the farmers capacity.
 To improve the Agroforestry practices by the tree farmers group and their neighbors.

12. Farmer’s Capacities Development
Farmer’s capacities are developed by NGOs though holding meeting, showing VDO and spreading different types of leaflets and colorful posters organizing rallies. VFFP and Jagorania Chakra range a series of five meeting in 2003 to develop the following capacities of the farmers-
 Pest and diseases management of mango, jackfruit, coconut, guava, bamboo, betel nut, lemon and litchu in Agroforestry.

 Planting and managing techniques of crops, fruit trees and timber trees.
 Grafting, budding and cutting techniques of fruit trees.
 Importance of Agroforestry.
 Vegetable production techniques in the homestead.

All NGOs took steps like the above to develop the technical, socio-organizational and managerial capacities of their farmers.

13. Exchange visit
The NGO worker informed and trained the farmers about their annual plan operation and provide financial, technical and administrative support. Then , the farmers implement the program in their field. During implementing the program the NGO workers and administrative officers go to the field to survey and evaluate the program. In this time, they exchange their opinions about their performance with the farmers. They are also informed about the farmer’s problems and needs through the exchange visit. The NGO workers also trained the farmers about different techniques like homestead planning, cutting, budding, grafting etc.

Read more...

APPROACHES OF NGOS IN AGROFORESTRY

The NGOs play important role in Agroforestry development. The approaches and roles of different NGOs are mentioned in belo

1. Targeting the Farmer
First off all, the NGOs worked invite farmers including men and women in a meeting. After gathering the farmer, they give information about agroforestry and tree plantation to the farmers. The workers also take information of lands, economic conditions and family status. Then, they select the poor and marginal farmers who show interest to plant the trees in the Agroforestry system. They build up the tree farmers with the selected farmers.
2. Motivation the Farmer
They gathered the poor farmers and women and give idea about Agroforestry. They also give consultation about the benefits of Agroforestry and important role to environment. The NGO workers informed the poor farmers about the more income through Agroforestry than the monoculture. They also understand the farmers the importance of trees for our life. They promise to the farmer that if they do Agroforestry in their land, the concerned NGO will provide all kind of required assistance such as technical, financial, instrumental and others. In these ways, the NGO motivate the farmer to do Agroforestry.

3. Training
After motivation the farmer, the invested farmers are given training about Agroforestry and nursery development. They trained the farmers how to established nursery, how to plant trees in cropland, how to maintain trees and how to applied fertilizers. They also trained about silvicultural management and others. They trained the farmers about cutting, budding, grafting and collecting scion materials. The farers also get training about management and control strategy of pest and diseases in the field. The NGO workers trained the technique of plus tree selecting and mother tree orchard to produce quality-planting materials.

4. Nursery Establishment
The NGO undertake the nursery program to ensure supply of seedlings locally as most of the nurseries are located in the urban area. NGOs nursery program is carried out though homestead and large-scale nurseries. Homestead nurseries are established on about 10 – 15 decimals of homestead land. Each nursery producing 1000 seedlings annually of different fruit and fuel trees (Huq and Alim, 1995 ). Most of the NGOs have self-nursery. The NGOs produce tree, fruit and fuel species in their nursery. For establishing nursery the NGOs supply:

 High qualities seed among their numbers who are interested to established nursery.
 Loan among their beneficiaries about nursery technique and nursery diseases.
 BRAC helps to sell seedling outside commercially.
 Different types of instruments those are required for nursery establishment.



5. Selection the Land
The NGO workers select the land where Agroforestry have to do. Then the selected farmers plant trees in those lands in combination with agricultural crops. They selected the agricultural land, marginal land and homestead land for Agroforestry.

6. Species Selection
Agroforestry is a sustainable land management system with agricultural crops and forest crops. Foe established this program the NGOs select the following species-
 Long term species – Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Mehagony (Swietenia Macroplylla), Ipil- ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), Sisso (Dalbergia sissoo), Am (Mangifera indica), Lichi ( Lichi chinensis).
 Mid term species – Lemon ( Catrus spp), Guava ( Psidium guajava), Papaya ( Cariaca papaya).
 Short term species – Vegetable like cowpea ( Vigna Ungiaculata), Eggplant ( Solanum Melongata ), cauliflower , tomato, zinger etc.

7. Management System
The regional manager supervises all these Agroforestry activities and both he and sector specialist report to the programme coordinator of the rural development programme. Thus NGOs like VFFP, BRAC, Proshika, Jagorania Chakra, CARE, SDC, DANIDA, MCC, WINROCK, WAVE, RDRS, Caritas and other many NGOs. Play an important role in Agroforestry development in Bangladesh. The farmer information their problems about trees and crops during supervising the Agroforestry fields to the regional manager and other NGO workers. Then the manager calls a regional coordination meeting and invites those farmers to solve the problems. In the meeting, the NGOs workers hear the farmer’s problems, their problems and need that can not be solved in regional meeting are discussed in central meeting and solve through that meeting.

8. Providing Technical Support
NGOs provide technical training and support to the farmers. They trained the farmer about nursery establishment, nursery management, nursery pest and diseases management and control, management of seedlings, planting technique of seedling, management of trees in agricultural field, silvicultural systems, weeding systems, crops planting and managing systems, control of pests of trees and crop[s, fertilizer application, pruning of branches and collection of fruits and harvesting of trees. They also provide modern instruments and pesticides to the farmers without any cost.

The NGOs also offer training to the farmers about cutting, grafting, budding and making scion materials. Sometimes, the NGOs provide vehicles to transport their planting materials and Agroforestry products.

9. Providing Financial Support
Some NGOs provide financial support. The system of providing financial support is not same for all NGOs. They provide loan to farmers for Agroforestry activities. In the beginning, VFFP offered 100% money required for established nursery, tree plantation, maintenance and other costs for agriforestry. Now, they provide little money to the farmers.
BRAC provides money to the farmers money to the farmers about 50% of the required money. They also provide seed for nursery establishment, seedling for planting. Other NGOs like WINROCK, WAVE, RDRS, Caritas, Proshika, Jagorania Chakra, etc. also they provide monetary support, seeds and seedlings to the farmers.
10. Farmers of NMS ( Nursery malik samity)
NMS is a business association for nursery owners. Technican assistance is provided through the nursery malik samity. Nursery malik samity is been on the thana level. Nursery malik samity includes 20-30 nursery maliks. If the member of NMS is greater than 30, then in one thana more one NMS can be formed. If the number of NMS in one thana is less than 20, one NMS can cover more than one thana. A single NGO are responsible for one NMS. Technical training are imparted to a few nursery Maliks, selected by the NMS and trained NMS will pass on their training to other member of samity.

11. Tree Farmers Program
The NGOs organize a tree farmer in every month. In this program, all farmers are invited for the following reason-
 TO know the needs of all members
 TO spread out of the existing project strength and strategy to the farmers.
 TO reach to the whole community of a village through tree farmers group.
 TO know the problems of all members.
 To increase the farmers capacity.
 To improve the Agroforestry practices by the tree farmers group and their neighbors.

12. Farmer’s Capacities Development
Farmer’s capacities are developed by NGOs though holding meeting, showing VDO and spreading different types of leaflets and colorful posters organizing rallies. VFFP and Jagorania Chakra range a series of five meeting in 2003 to develop the following capacities of the farmers-
 Pest and diseases management of mango, jackfruit, coconut, guava, bamboo, betel nut, lemon and litchu in Agroforestry.

 Planting and managing techniques of crops, fruit trees and timber trees.
 Grafting, budding and cutting techniques of fruit trees.
 Importance of Agroforestry.
 Vegetable production techniques in the homestead.

All NGOs took steps like the above to develop the technical, socio-organizational and managerial capacities of their farmers.

13. Exchange visit
The NGO worker informed and trained the farmers about their annual plan operation and provide financial, technical and administrative support. Then , the farmers implement the program in their field. During implementing the program the NGO workers and administrative officers go to the field to survey and evaluate the program. In this time, they exchange their opinions about their performance with the farmers. They are also informed about the farmer’s problems and needs through the exchange visit. The NGO workers also trained the farmers about different techniques like homestead planning, cutting, budding, grafting etc.

Read more...

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